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Newsletter: African Terrorism Bulletin Issue 3
7 June 2005

ISS - African Terrorism Bulletin

 

June 2005 | Issue 003


Welcome to the third edition the African Terrorism Bulletin. The quarterly newsletter is produced by the Organised Crime and Corruption Programme of the Institute for Security Studies. The aim is to provide balanced information, analysis and critical perspectives regarding news on terrorism and counter-terrorism strategies on the African continent.

The information in this and future African Terrorism Bulletins will be based on `open source` information. Despite that, commenting on developments relating to terrorism remains a sensitive issue. The Bulletin will endeavour to steer through the different agendas that form part of the discourse on terrorism in a critical and balanced way.

Comments and critiques from our readers are encouraged. Please feel free to pass this newsletter on to anyone who you think may be interested in the content of the African Terrorism Bulletin. To subscribe please send an e-mail to terrorism@issct.org.za .

 CONTENTS


"Minimal terrorist threat in Sahel, but the wrong policies could create one."
US to launch the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative
Few Africans fear an increase in terrorism
Kenyan terror suspect first acquitted then rearrested
South Africans warned to refrain from terror activities abroad
Tourist areas targeted in Egypt
Renewed threat from defeated Ugandan rebel group?
Communal guards killed in Algeria
UN General Assembly adopts treaty on nuclear terrorism
Mauritania: Contested arrests and detentions of terror suspects
UN urges Kenya to speed up anti-terrorism laws
SA anti-terror law is enacted
Commonwealth workshops on AML/CFT for ESAAMLG member states
Striking a fine balance between concerns for human rights and the `War on Terrorism`
Vigilantism v.the State: A case study of the rise and fall of Pagad,1996-2000
An African Vortex: Islamism in Sub-Saharan Africa
The dark side of diaspora networking organised crime and terrorism
Organised crime and terrorism: Observations from Southern Africa

 EDITORIAL


In this edition of the African Terrorism Bulletin, a closer look is taken at recent developments in Western Africa. At the end of March 2005, the Belgian based International Crisis Group (ICG) released the third in a series of reports examining the threat of Islamist terrorism in North Africa. Entitled "Islamist Terrorism in the Sahel: Fact or Fiction?" (go to TOP STORY), the report suggests that a heavy-handed US approach to fighting terrorism in the Sahel would risk what it aims to prevent: a rise of Islamist militancy. The report hones in on the countries of the Sahel including Mauritania, Mali, Niger and Chad. These countries are perceived to be vulnerable to terrorist activity. The old debate around whether adverse conditions foster an environment favourable to the growth of terrorist activity is taken under the loop. Conventional Western thinking suggests that weak states provide the perfect targets for terrorist or criminal organisations. The countries of the Sahel are among the poorest in the world. They face a constant battle against developmental challenges, and Western donors and particularly the US are concerned about issues relating to weak governance, security, lax border controls, an abundance of small arms and ammunition and a perceived growth of what is termed as "Islamist activity".

What differentiates the ICG report from others is its findings. The report finds that the Sahel deserves greater international attention; but not the sort of attention displayed in the initial US response to the perceived threat of terrorism, the Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI). The Initiative is described as constituting little more than a hunt for terrorists in the region and a series of programs for training African militaries; while some Sahelian governments have used anti-terrorism measures as a pretext to act against their political opposition. It goes on to disapprove of military aid as the only response to this security threat. According to the ICG, the international community should realise that there is little of a terrorist threat in the area, yet the wrong policies could help to create one. It calls for broader Western efforts to tackle the underlying problems of weak governance and poverty, rather than concentrating on counter-terrorism and military capacity building only. The last point is the most salient one, particularly in light of new figures released by the Stockholm International Peace Institute (Sipri). According to Sipri, the world`s most powerful nations spent extraordinary sums on weapons compared to the relatively modest sums spent on aid. 2004, the sixth successive year in which arms spending increased, saw the global total spent on munitions top more than $1 trillion, the amount spent on aid over the same period was $78,6 billion. As discussed earlier, some of the little aid spent is military in nature.

The ICG in its report has fleshed out one of the major controversies in the developed world`s approach to `helping` least developed nations: military capacity building, counter-terrorism initiatives and the forging of strategic alliances. This is nothing new in world politics, only a few years ago, the so-called superpowers of the Cold War era used to identify proxy states and strategic defence allies. Many political scholars have commented that the `War on Terror` and the Cold War carry many similarities. For example, the human rights record of one`s ally is beyond reproach. In the `War on Terror`, many repressive governments use counter-terrorism strategies to stifle legitimate political opposition. One of the most obvious differences is the perceived enemy. During the Cold War, it was the opposing ideological camp, i.e. the rival superpower or strategic alliance. With the exception of what has been termed state terrorism or state-sponsored terrorism, the new security threat stems mostly from transnational non-state actors, be they criminal or terrorist in orientation. This begs the question whether a law enforcement and military containment approach suffices in dealing with the `new security threat`. It is hoped that the new US program, the Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative (TSCTI), will incorporate more than military capacity-building to the underdeveloped nations of the Sahel.

When digging deeper, it becomes clear that the world faces a multitude of new security threats, and not from terrorist part of the spectrum only. Many of the future security threats could be the potential consequences of a heavy-handed approach in the `War on Terror` and little attention paid to poverty alleviation and development of the poorest nations...
Read "Global spending on arms far outstrips aid"-Sunday Independent

 TOP STORY


"Minimal terrorist threat in Sahel, but the wrong policies could create one."
31 March 2005 -The Belgian-based think tank, the International Crisis Group (ICG) has released a series of reports, which examine whether there is a serious terrorist threat in West Africa and the viability of the US response to the perceived terrorist threat, the Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI). The third report in the series, "Islamist terrorism in the Sahel: fact or fiction?" examines Mali, Niger, Chad and Mauritania. These countries are often referred to by the US military as "the new front in the war on terror". The report finds that the Sahel is not a breeding ground for terrorist activity, yet a misconceived and heavy-handed approach could tip the scale the wrong way. The prospects for growth in "Islamist terrorism" in the region are found to be `delicately balanced`. Muslim populations in West Africa are increasingly disconcerted with US policy in the Middle East, while there has been a parallel increase in fundamental indoctrination. However, the ICG expresses the view that these developments should not be overestimated, as fundamentalist Islam has been present in the Sahel for more than six decades without being linked to anti-Western violence. In the case of Mauritania, the national government is said to be exploiting US military and financial support as a pretext to stifle political opposition This has turned the small number of arrested clerics and so-called `militants` into martyrs, thus giving ammunition to local anti-American figures who claim that the PSI and the expanded Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative (TSCTI) are part of a larger plan to render Muslim populations servile. Further ammunition is provided in the form of closing down the smuggling and trading networks that have become the economic lifeblood of Saharan peoples whose life-stock was devastated by the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s, without offering economic alternatives.

The report proposes a long-term engagement with Sahel. Thus it sees a development-focused approach as opposed to a purely militaristic approach. An effective counter-terrorism policy should address the threat in the broadest terms, with more development than military aid and greater US-European collaboration. It is feared that Washington is unlikely to devote substantial non-military resources to the Sahel soon, even though Western Africa is slowly gaining recognition as an area of strategic interest to the West, not least due its vast oil resources.

A further ICG report "The Islamist Challenge in Mauritania: Threat or Scapegoat?" shows that the Mauritanian government is using anti-terrorism measures as a pretext in its bid to crush political opposition.
Download the ICG report "Islamist Terrorism in the Sahel: Fact or Fiction?"
Download the ICG report "The Islamist Challenge in Mauritania: Threat or Scapegoat?"
Read the ICG press release on Allafrica
Read the Alertnet article

US to launch the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative
May 27 2005- The US is to launch the Trans Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative (TSCI) in June 2005. The TSCI is built on the experiences of the earlier Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI), which provided training and equipment to light infantry companies in Mali, Mauritania, Chad and Niger. The new initiative will kick off with Exercise Flintlock 2005, in which US special operation forces will train their counterparts in military tactics, which they deem critical in enhancing regional security and stability. The new program has more funding available, it will receive about $100 million a year for five years, and a wider scope, adding Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Senegal and N igeria to the original four countries in the PSI. Notable is the inclusion of N igeria, the continent`s biggest petroleum producer and source of one-fifth of all American oil imports. A US defence official labelled the new initiative an important step in the US `War on Terror`, with an emphasis on prevention rather than reaction. Recommendations suggesting a broader development approach towards the Sahel by the International Crisis Group and others seem to have been ignored in the TSCI. However, the US Defence Department has said that other US government agencies would become active players in the program at a later stage.
Read the TaiPei Times article
Read the Houston Chronicle article
Read the Xinhuanet article
Read the American Forces Press Service article on Allafrica

 TERRORISM IN THE NEWS


Few Africans fear an increase in terrorism
June 05 2005-A research survey conducted for the World Economic Forum, shows that less than one in ten Africans feared an increase in terrorism. Their greatest fear was a failure of the economy (33%). In the survey of all global citizens, twenty percent identified an increase in terrorism as their greatest fear. According to the survey`s findings, Africans were more positive and sanguine about the prospects for 2005 when compared with the previous years. The analysis of findings from the Gallup International Voice of the People Survey for Africa is based on responses from more than 10 500 interviews in six countries on the continent. It is said to represent the views of more than 12.5 million Africans. Overall more than 50 000 people were interviewed in over sixty countries across the world.
Read the bizcommunity article

Kenyan terror suspect first acquitted then rearrested
June 14 2005-Kenyan authorities re-arrested a man suspected of terrorism links just hours after he was acquitted on murder charges in connection with the 2002 bombing of the Mombassa Paradise hotel. Kenyan police claimed to have found an unlicensed gun in Omar Said Omar`s house in 2003 while he was being investigated for ties with the terrorist incident. Earlier in the day, a High Court judge had ordered Omar and three co-accused released after the prosecutors had failed to prove any link between the four and the terror attack. Omar`s lawyer, Winston Ngaira, says that his client had been re-arrested and whisked away by more than thirty police officials. Omar was held incommunicado and initially the lawyer had been denied access to him. Ngaira said that the United States was interested in extraditing Omar, possibly to testify against terrorism suspects. In the meantime, Omar has been granted bail. He is now facing fresh charges of illegally possessing firearms and ammunition.
Read the Mail & Guardian article
Read the Standard article
Read the story in the previous edition of the African Terrorism Bulletin

South Africans warned to refrain from terror activities abroad
May 20 2005-The South African intelligence minister has warned South Africans not to get involved in terrorist activities abroad or they would get their hands burned both in South Africa and overseas. During a media briefing, Ronnie Kasrils announced plans to reinforce and close the loopholes in the Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act. The act is better known for its use against mercenaries operating in Africa, such as those who were involved in an alleged coup attempt in Equatorial Guinea last year. Kasrils was referring to the case last year, when two South Africans were arrested in Pakistan after becoming embroiled in a shoot-out between Pakistani security forces and alleged al-Qaeda terrorists. The two men claimed they had gone to a safe house in Pakistan to rest and by coincidence had been caught up in the fire-fight. They were arrested in Pakistan and were released several months later. Pakistani authorities cleared their names from any involvement in terrorist activities. Kasrils cautioned that organisations like al-Qaeda saw South Africa as an attractive haven and the government had already arrested several individuals belonging to such organisations and deported them.
Read the Cape Times article

Tourist areas targeted in Egypt
May 08 2005-During April 2005, three foreign visitors were killed and several others were injured in two suicide bombings in the Egyptian capital Cairo. The attacks targeted tourist areas in the centre of Cairo. On 7 April 2005, a bomber killed himself, three tourists and wounded others in a bazaar. Later that month on 30 April 2005, a suicide bomber blew himself up and injured seven people near the Egyptian museum. On the same day, two women opened fire on a tourist bus. Both of them died, while no one else was hurt in the incident. Egyptian law enforcement officials believe that the same group carried out the attacks. They say they have killed or captured most of the suspects behind the October and April terrorist incidents. Tourism is a major source of revenue and employment for Egypt. Despite the recent attacks, Egypt`s tourism minister remains confident about the future prospects of the tourism industry.
Read the AlertNet article

Renewed threat from defeated Ugandan rebel group?
June 06 2005-Security officials in Uganda are warning that the country faces a real threat from an Islamic group that many believed had been defeated. In the past, Uganda`s security problems seemed to primarily focus on the Lord`s Resistance Army, LRA, which professes Christian values but has pursued a violent war in northern Uganda for more than twenty years. Now there is growing concern about the Allied Democratic Forces, ADF, who are believed to be regrouping and rearming. From 1996 onwards, the ADF grew into a potent rebel force with the assistance of the Sudanese government. By 2001, the Ugandan armed forces had effectively defeated the group. The United States even dropped the ADF from its list of designated terrorist organisations recently. The ADF`s base in the Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC, adds to the many cross-border security problems facing the Great Lakes region. James Mugira, Uganda`s acting chief of military intelligence, says that the long absence of a central government in the DRC had given the ADF time to regroup there. He believes that the ADF had received funding, operational training and weapons from `foreign Islamic fundamentalist groups in Muslim countries`. Earlier this year, ADF leader Jamil Mukulu distributed tape recordings of religious sermons in which he incited Muslims to attack the Ugandan government. The United Nations mission in the DRC is less convinced about the threat posed by the Ugandan rebel group. Four years ago, the Ugandan government unsuccessfully tried to get an international arrest warrant for Mukulu. It now plans to post his photo on the internet in a bid to capture him.
Read the Institute for War and Peace Reporting report "New danger from Ugandan Rebel Group?"

Communal guards killed in Algeria
June 09 2005- Thirteen Algerian communal guards were killed and six were wounded, when a bomb exploded under their truck more than 400 km south of the Algerian capital Algiers. The truck was ferrying the nineteen guards to a security force `mopping up` operation. This was the deadliest incident in Algeria since mid-May 2005, when twelve troops were killed in an ambush attributed to the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC). No one has claimed responsibility for the latest attack. The oil-producing North African country is emerging from more than a decade of conflict, which has cost the lives of nearly 200 000 people. The Algerian government is putting together a national reconciliation plan aimed at ending the violence. It is expected to include a general amnesty to those willing to lay down their arms.
Read the news24 article

 STATE RESPONSES


UN General Assembly adopts treaty on nuclear terrorism
April 13 2005- The United Nations General Assembly adopted by consensus an international treaty against nuclear terrorism. The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism strengthens the global framework to combat terrorism, requires the extradition or prosecution of those implicated and encourages the exchange of information and interstate cooperation. It will open for signature on 14 September 2005 at the General Assembly`s sixtieth session and enter into force after twenty-two states ratify it. It will strengthen the international legal framework against terrorism, which includes twelve existing universal conventions and protocols. The treaty aims to deal with both crisis situations by assisting states in preventing terrorist groups from possessing nuclear material, and post-crisis situations by rendering the nuclear material safe in accordance with safeguards provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Read the UN News Service article
Download the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

Mauritania: Contested arrests and detentions of terror suspects
May 17 2005- Early in May, the Mauritanian government said it had arrested seven leaders of a terrorist cell after entering the country from Algeria in the Mauritanian capital, Noukachott. It claims that the men were members of the Algerian-led group, the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), which is on the US list of terrorist organisations and has been linked to al Qaeda in the past. The suspects were charged with planning to carry out terrorist acts and join the Iraqi insurgency. The arrests drew criticism from Mauritania`s political opposition. It says the government had used the threat of terrorism to crack down on the Islamist opposition in the past. Security analysts submit that the situation was complex due to the political divide between the secular government and the Islamic opposition in the Muslim country. Princeton Lyman of the Council on Foreign Relations added that Mauritanians tend to describe the opposition as terrorists. Critics say it is one of the most repressive countries in the region toward Islamist movements. In the interim, the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) reported that thirty-three top personalities in Mauritania had been secretly detained for alleged terrorist activities since 25 April 2005. OMCT has asked the government to respect the human rights of the detainees and called for their immediate release.

Meanwhile, the GSPC claimed responsibility for the killing of Mauritanian soldiers in an operation launched on a military base in northeast Mauritania on 3 June 2005. The claim was posted on the group`s official website. The GSPC considers the operation "the first of its kind". Members of the group sought to avenge "brothers who were recently captured by the converted Mauritanian regime, and to stand up for the weakened Muslims there". Media reports indicate that at least fifteen soldiers were killed and thirteen injured.
Read the PolitInfo.com article
Read the Washington Times article
Read the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) press release
Read the Search for International Terrorist Entities (SITE) publication

UN urges Kenya to speed up anti-terrorism laws
May 3 2005 -The United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) has urged Kenya to step up the enactment of law against terrorist financing. Kenya has been the site of two international terrorist incidents in 1998 and 2002, blamed on al Qaeda. The CTED said that one of the pitfalls in Kenya counter-terrorism strategy was the lack of legislation criminalising terrorism and the funding of terror activities. The committee was created by UN Resolution 1373 in the wake of 11 September 2001. The resolution also required all UN member states to freeze finances and implement a number of measures to enhance their legal and institutional capacity to counter terrorism. Previous attempts to legislate against terrorism in Kenya invoked broad public dismay, even protest actions. Nonetheless, the government has renewed the drafting process with the Suppression of Terrorism Bill and the Anti-Money Laundering Bill in the pipeline. The UN experts travelled to Kenya for the second in a series of country visits to take stock of the worldwide fight against terrorism.
Read the Alertnet article
Read the UN News Service article

SA anti-terror law is enacted
May 20 2005- South Africa`s anti-terror legislation, the Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorism and Related Activities Act was enacted on 20 May 2005. Local commercial banks were unable to comply fully with the new requirements of the legislation. The Act provides for two new reporting obligations. Banks must check accounts against a designated list of terrorists and terrorist entities, which is based on a United Nations "terrorism list". It also requires banks to report other suspicious and unusual transactions relating to terrorist activity. Banks are grappling with this, as the new law falls short of defining what a terrorist is. This leaves the banks to make an assessment themselves in absence of government guidance.Human rights activists remain sceptic about the necessity of a dedicated anti-terror law for the country. They also fear that the Act still provides for the potential impingement on basic human rights and civil liberties.
Download the Terrorist Financing Reporting Obligations
Read the Business Day article
Read the Cape Times op-ed
Read the story in the previous newsletter

Commonwealth workshops on AML/CFT for ESAAMLG member states
The Governance and Institutional Development Division (GIDD) of the Commonwealth Secretariat has kick-started a series of workshops on Anti-Money laundering/Combating Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) for countries belonging to the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG). The first workshop was held in the Tanzanian city of Arusha. The objective of the workshop was to assist in developing the capacity of government officials in drawing up AML/CFT national strategies that meet the requirements of the new international standard in combating money laundering and terrorist financing. Workshops participants for this and future workshops are drawn from the ministries of finance, justice, legal affairs, law enforcement agencies, central and commercial banks and revenue authorities. It is hoped that draft strategies will provide the necessary foundation for participants to consult with other key stakeholders in order to drive the process forward. The Secretariat publication `Combating Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing : A Model of Best Practice for the Financial Sector, the Professions and Other Designated Business` forms the basis for deliberations. The next workshop will be held in Namibia in August 2005.
Read the Commonwealth Secretariat article

 CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES


Striking a fine balance between concerns for human rights and the `War on Terrorism`
Global concern around the issue of terrorism and strategies to combat the phenomenon gained momentum in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. The events of that day brought with themselves myriad changes affecting individuals, governments, and institutions, international and interstate relations. The United Nations Security Council, acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, adopted Resolution 1373 on 28 September 2001. It sets out certain mandatory requirements to create an anti-terrorism global legal and institutional framework. The mandatory character of the Resolution obliges each member state to create the prescribed legal framework in its national laws and institutions and to co-operate fully with other states on a global scale.

Balancing the fight against terrorism with basic considerations for human rights has become a challenging task to policy and lawmakers around the world. Those in favour of tough anti-terror laws again argue that in order to secure a world relatively safe from terrorist attacks, we, the citizens, have to surrender at least some of our hard-won freedoms. This may include granting permission to intelligence agencies to tap into phone lines, e-mail accounts and mobile phone communication; wider powers of arrest and detention to investigating agencies; very strict bail conditions for terror suspects or people suspected of aiding terrorists; the banning of `terrorist` organisations-the list of potential encroachments upon human rights and civil liberties enshrined in many a country`s anti-terror law is extensive.

Amnesty International (AI), the international human rights organisation, has put the `War on Terror` in a significant perspective in its annual report for 2004. The report indicated that the methods adopted by governments in Asia, Africa, the Americas and Europe have failed to prevent attacks on civilians and only encouraged abuse of human rights. Governments around the world were charged with `looking only for political convenience while choosing the tactics to combat terrorism`. AI maintains that the protection of civilian lives has become of secondary importance while fighting terrorists. The leader in the `War on Terrorism`, the United States of America, was the biggest violator of human rights. According to the report, America`s global strategy against terrorism has been proven as blind towards innocent lives. The report notes with dismay that "this blinkered vision of combating terrorism had been adopted by others too". With regard to Africa, AI found that armed conflicts fuelled the majority of gross human rights violations on the continent. Global media watchdog, the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), noted that the war on terrorism presented a huge challenge to human rights. In a recent survey of 20 countries, the IFJ report found that only half of them complied with an absolute minimum standard of regard for human rights.

The topic of a fine line between the respect for human rights and the effective fight against terrorism is a recurring one in international scholarly circles. The big debate in the United States at the moment queries the permissibility of torture in anti-terrorism interrogations. Proponents of such measures claim that while they may diminish civil liberties and basic human rights considerations, they ensure that terrorist are kept at bay. What is more important to the person in the street: Protection against potential terrorist attacks or a guarantee of his/her constitutionally enshrined civil rights and liberties?

It should be noted that only few African countries have enacted dedicated anti-terror laws to date. In some cases, the laws used to prosecute terror suspects contradict the country`s constitution, which provides for the protection of human rights under the Bill of Rights. In fact, anti-terror laws are used to act against political opposition from time to time. International pressure is mounting on African countries to comply with the obligations set out in UN Resolution 1373. Perhaps African countries could lead the way by implementing anti-terror laws that respect basic human rights and civil liberties.
Further reading: "Amnesty International Report 2005"-Amnesty International
"Africa: Regional overview 2004"- Amnesty International
"Human rights lobbies, states differ over war on terror" - AllAfrica
"Threats to human rights in new act"-Annette Hà┬╝bschle-
Visit the International Committee of the Red Cross website

 ANNOUNCEMENTS


Vigilantism v.the State: A case study of the rise and fall of Pagad,1996-2000
By Keith Gottschalk
In this paper, University of the Western Cape academic Keith Gottschalk presents his interpretation of the People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (Pagad) phenomenon. Pagad challenged the young South African democracy with two difficult tests. First, could the post-apartheid police and prosecutors break Pagad? Second, could police, prosecutors and judiciary, caught in the upheaval of transformation, suppress its terrorism without detention, torture and other violations of the rule of law and the Constitution`s Bill of Human Rights?
Download the ISS paper

An African Vortex: Islamism in Sub-Saharan Africa
By David McCormack
This paper looks at the threat of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa. McCormack contends that Wahhabi ideology and massive infusions of Saudi cash are rapidly transforming the once peaceful Sufi-inspired sub-Saharan Islam into militant Islam. The likely result would be "unmanageable inter-communal strife between Muslims and non-Muslims" and a "hospitable environment for terrorists with an international agenda."
Download the Center for Security Policy paper

The dark side of diaspora networking organised crime and terrorism
By Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
This thought-provoking chapter forms part of an ISS monograph entitled "Diasporas, Remittances and Africa South of the Sahara: A Strategic Assessment". Pérouse de Montclos examines the role of diasporas in sub-Saharan Africa. He argues that whereas some African diasporas back armed struggles, terrorist groups and criminal organisations, their overall contribution either to disruptive forces or to development and democratic transitions should not be overemphasised. He includes case-studies on the infamous 419-scams, contravention of exchange controls and other money laundering schemes.
Download the ISS monograph chapter

Organised crime and terrorism: Observations from Southern Africa
By Charles Goredema
The paper renders a broad overview of the salient factors of organised crime in Southern Africa and draws attention to the features that might predispose the sub-region to be susceptible to terrorism. Drawing on lessons from other regions, it analyses the relationship between different phases of terrorism and typologies of organised crime.
Download the ISS paper

Please inform us of upcoming terrorism meetings, seminars, workshops, conferences, publications and other developments annette@issct.org.za

 ABOUT THE ISS


The Institute for Security Studies (ISS) is an applied policy non-profit research organisation with a focus on human security issues on the African continent.

This newsletter is produced by the Terrorism in Africa component which is located within the ISS Organised Crime and Corruption programme in Cape Town and funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD).

 EDITORIAL TEAM


Annette Hà┬╝bschle (Researcher: Terrorism and Organised Crime) - annette@issct.org.za
Mxolisi Makinana (ISS Research Intern)


Institute for Security Studies
67 Roeland Street, Drury Lane, Gardens, Cape Town 8001, South Africa
Tel +27 (0)21 461-7211 . Fax +27 (0)21 461-7213
www.issafrica.org . terrorism@issct.org.za

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